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Posts Tagged ‘Judiciary’

Great decision by Islamabad High Court to arrest former dictator General (Retarded) Pervaiz Musharraf

April 18, 2013 2 comments

Great decision by Islamabad High Court to arrest former dictator General (Retarded) Pervaiz Musharraf. I hope things will go better in missing persons case and other cases of human rights violations. Its now a test for caretaker government to pursue high treason case against Musharraf.

Islamabad High Court orders Pervez Musharraf’s arrest (Geo TV)
Source: http://www.geo.tv/GeoDetail.aspx?ID=97293

ISLAMABAD: The Islamabad High Court has ordered the arrest of Pakistan’s former president, General (retd) Pervez Musharraf.

Pervez Musharraf appeared before the Islamabad High Court on Thursday to seek a bail extension in the judges’ confinement case, however his plea was dismissed. During proceedings of the case, Justice Shaukat Aziz Siddiqui remarked that Musharraf was accused of destroying the judicial system. The court ordered that the charge of terrorism be added in the case.

Pervez Musharraf immediately left the court and drove to his farmhouse in Chak Shahzad escorted by his security personnel. Police are guarding the main gate of Pervez Musharraf’s farmhouse and have blocked off access to the street.

IHC ISSUES DETAILED ORDER

The Islamabad High Court has issued its detailed order regarding the rejection of Pervez Musharraf’s bail extension.

The court has taken notice of Musharraf’s fleeing from the court premises and summoned Inspector General Police Islamabad. The court said that Musharraf’s fleeing was a separate crime.

The IG Islamabad has been asked to explain what measures have been taken regarding the arrest of Musharraf and what action will be taken against those officers who failed to arrest him from the court’s premises.

PRE-ARREST BAIL NOT SUBMITTED

Musharraf’s lawyers could not submit a pre-arrest bail petition against his arrest orders by the Islamabad High Court in the Judges’ confinement case on Thursday. The petition could not be submitted as the court’s hours of operation had expired.

Pervez Musharraf’s lawyer Advocate Ibrahim Satti said the advocate on-record had taken the petition to the Supreme Court but could not submit it as the court’s working hours had expired.

Satti added that the Registrar Supreme Court and Chief Justice Iftikhar Mohammad Chaudhry were attending the full court meeting and petition will be filed in the Supreme Court on Friday.

APML RESPONSE

“Former President Musharraf earlier today appeared in Islamabad High Court in a procedural matter to seek extension in his transitory bail, which was due to expire today, April 18, 2013. The Judge, in an unprecedented move, took an unwarranted decision to reject the extension request.

The augmented State Security Apparatus assigned to President Musharraf in the face of specific and credible physical threats to his life by the enemies of Pakistan escorted the Former President to his home in Islamabad.

The Former President is filing an appeal in the Supreme Court of Pakistan against this ill-conceived decision of Islamabad High Court. We expect this unwarranted judicial activism, motivated by personal vendettas since his return to Pakistan to participate in the upcoming elections, will cease and the Supreme Court, without prejudice, will immediately grant necessary relief following precedence and the Rule of Law; the absence of which will cause mockery of the nation, can result in unnecessary tension amongst the various pillars of State and possibly destabilize the country.”

BACKGROUND

The judges’ confinement case stems from the detainment of several top judges including Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry during the imposition of emergency by the former president in Pakistan on November 3, 2007.

Pervez Musharraf returned to Pakistan to contest general elections last month. His nomination papers from four constituencies were rejected by Election Tribunals earlier this week.

Musharraf is also accused in the Benzair Bhutto murder case and was granted interim bail till April 24 by the Lahore High Court Rawalpindi bench.

Tahir al Qadri, another dirty game of establishment and their foreign masters to hijack the momentum of change

December 24, 2012 6 comments

After all the thought process and failed attempts to hijack the momentum of change being developed, Pakistani establishment and their foreign masters in USA/UK have come up with another puppet named Tahir al Qadri.

It seems all the pressure on MQM by Scotland yard for Imran Farooq murder case was to make them support this game and stay in their limits by accepting the role of a sidekick instead of growing beyond their given size and role. 46374_389580101135618_1809301932_n

MQM, ANP, PPP, PML and JUI have done so many crimes that its very hard for them to take a stand against establishment and their masters in USA/UK. Imagine if they can be forced to accept arrangements in local politics because of their criminal record then how can they take any stand (if they have any) on issues related to foreign policies, war policies and other important areas?

Apparently Tahir al Qadri’s mission is to hijack the slogans, confuse the masses by using similar points as used by anti status-quo parties and then present this hijacked revolution in the plate of Pakistani establishment and their masters abroad.

It seems propaganda against Imran Khan on stupid tape issue, Zaid Hamid letter to Imran Khan attacking his loyalty to the country and presenting him as security risk, and propaganda against Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhary especially on sectarian lines and Arsalan Iftikhar case are part of the same dirty game plan.

Its a big test now for Pakistan Tehreek e Insaf (PTI), Jamat e Islami (JI) and other smaller parties to come up with a counter strategy and stand above their petty issues to counter this evil plot by Pakistani establishment and USA/uK.

Next election will again be on fake war on terror policies, independent judiciary, missing persons, NRO and other important issues on which establishment is on the opposing side of judiciary and parties who support judiciary and oppose this fake war.

Many people are stupid enough to be fooled by this ass hat Tahir al Qadri and his fake agenda of change and now we need to see how the forces of change in politics, media and civil society can counter this attack.

Statements by Chief Justice of Pakistan and Army Chief –> We support the Supreme Court, Chief Justice and the Constitution

November 6, 2012 2 comments

In past few days there were some statements given by Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhar and Army Chief General Ashfaq Prevez Kiyani. According to media reports, Kiyanis words were (from Pakistan Today):

“Any effort which wittingly or unwittingly draws a wedge between the people and armed forces of Pakistan undermines the larger national interest.”

Also he said:

“No individual or institution has the monopoly to decide what is right or wrong while defining the ultimate national interest.”

These words may not seem very harmful but if we look them in the context of Asghar Khan case and recent proceedings of missing persons cases in the
Supreme Court then one can get some idea about the possible target of the statements.

On the other hand, SC released a speech of CJP which he gave earlier but the timing of releasing the speech to media seems to be interesting and apparently it is related with the statement by Army Chief. In the speech, honorable Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhary renewed his stance to protect the constitution.

According to media reports, he said:

“Gone are the days when stability and security of the country was defined in terms of number of missiles and tanks as a manifestation of hard power available at the disposal of the state,” the chief justice said while speaking to a delegation of the 97th National Management Course, National School of Public Policy and National Management College Lahore at the Supreme Court building.

Also he said:

“The composition, powers and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court are set out by the Constitution itself and the court exercises original, appellate, review and advisory jurisdictions and its decisions are binding on all other courts of Pakistan,”

I am glad that he acknowledges the struggle by the justice loving people of Pakistan who didn’t buy Musharraf’s national interest or national security type bogus cards and supported the judiciary.

“The present day Supreme Court is alive to the fact that it has been restored to its original position by unprecedented struggle carried out by a consort of such professional classes as lawyers, students, media persons and civil society at large.”

If I have to choose between judiciary and useless army, I will choose judiciary and constitution. It seems army chief is upset because of Asghar Khan case and missing persons cases. Also people like IK have openly said that if he will be in power then generals will also be made accountable in front of the law. Indeed these are some disturbing times for anti-Pakistan corrupt mercenary generals. Army will be the biggest hurdle in any genuine change against the forces of evil and status-quo. Prime example of Army’s support to status-quo is NRO which was given to the corrupt political and bureaucratic elite.

Kiyani needs to understand that if they follow the constitution and respect the principles of justice, human rights and freedom then people will not criticize them. Exceptions are those who are working on foreign agenda but if we look into it then we can see that most of them were supported by Army because of the pro-war stance by these people. If army wants respect then they have to come out of this American war and leave their role of mercenary army. They also need to focus on defending the country instead of taking part in political activities or taking control of land and economic resources of the country. Also accountability of culprits in the institution is also required to improve the image of the institution. We need a credible or even a strong defense but not at the cost of freedom, justice and  human rights.

We support CJP and SC. Its our moral and constitutional responsibility to protect the constitution and country from these evil Khakis who only know how to serve their lust of power. They only love that Pakistan which is under their boots and we have to change this situation and inshaAllah it will be changed in a good way.

SC orders action against Riaz, Salman and Arsalan–>Remarkable judgment

In a historic judgment by Supreme Court of Pakistan , the judges have ordered an action against Malik Riaz (real estate mafia lord), Salman (Son in law of Malik Riaz) and Arsalan Iftikhar Chaudhry (Chief Justice’s own son).

We salute Chief Justice and Supreme Court for showing us that, at least in their eyes, no one is above the law.

 

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SC orders action against Riaz, Salman and Arsalan

Source: http://www.geo.tv/GeoDetail.aspx?ID=54275

ISLAMABAD: A two member bench of the Supreme Court comprising of Justice Jawwad S Khawaja and Justice Khilji Arif have concluded hearing of the Arsalan Iftikhar suo moto case and issued its short order.

In the short order the Supreme Court directed Attorney General Ifran Qadir to take strict action against Malik Raiz, Salman Ahmed (Riaz’s son-in-law) and Arsalan Iftikhar according to the law. The court said that the three had the right to a transparent trial.

The court ruled that Malik Riaz tried to buy justice, adding those giving bribes and those taking it were both sinners.

The two member bench also rejected the plea of Malik Riaz’s counsel Zahid Bukhari to form a commission or send the case to an investigation agency.

The short order was written on the basis of statements recorded by parties in the case along with those of Hamid Mir, Kamran Khan and Shaheen Sehbai.

Shaheen Sehbai admitted that the son of the CJ was targeted to hatch a conspiracy against the judiciary.

The order further said that Malik Riaz had accepted that despite spending more than Rs340 million he could not get relief. The media should not be used by such persons who do not respect the law and constitution, the order said.

 

Malik Riaz Planted Interview with Mehar bukhari and Mubashir Luqman on dunya tv–>Malik Riaz directing the interview

June 14, 2012 1 comment

check this:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAPruojZ4Vo&feature=share

Check how Malik Riaz is directing the interview and what sort of discussion is going on.

I think, I don’t need to comment much about it. It’s crystal clear for those who have functioning brain, ears, eyes and conscience.

“Remember how those who bent on denying the truth plotted against you to imprison you or kill you or expel you: they schemed but God also schemed. God is the best of schemers.” (Quran, Al-Anfal 8:30 )

Malik Riaz’s assault on judiciary and SC registrar response–> We stand by the SC and CJP

June 12, 2012 4 comments

In a recent press conference Malik Riaz has attacked the Supreme Judiciary of Pakistan and Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhary. In his press conference he mentioned about meeting with CJP and tried to give an impression that he was meeting with him during the cases. In response to that Registrar of Supreme Court has clearly mentioned that these meetings took place when CJP was illegally deposed by Musharraf. It seems that the corrupt real estate mafi lord, Malik Riaz, is trying to blackmail the court. He met CJ only when he was deposed and there was a lawyer’s movement going on. CJ met many people during the movement including many lawyers but even those lawyers say that they didn’t get any relief.

Registrar SC also clarified that he was also present in the meetings.

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Malik Riaz met deposed CJ: SC Registrar

Source:http://www.onlinenews.com.pk/details.php?newsid=194953

ISLAMABAD: Responding to one of the queries of property tycoon Malik Riaz about the meetings of Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry with him, Supreme Court Registrar Faqir Hussain said that the meetings took place when the Chief Justice was deposed.

In a statement issued here shortly after Riaz’s press conference in which he levelled serious allegations against the CJ, the SC Registrar said two to three such meetings took place between Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and Malik Riaz when he was deposed.

He said the meeting proposed a meeting between Asif Ali Zardari and the Justice Chaudhry. Talking to a private television, he said the chief justice flatly declined to have such meeting saying it would be inappropriate.

He said Iftikhar Chaudhry met Malik Riaz Hussain “two or three times” while he was suspended. The registrar said he was also present during the meetings with Malik Riaz and the Chief Justice.

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Now if we look at the press conference by MR, we can clearly see that he is trying to create an environment against CJP. A day before , PM Gillani has also tried to show that he has the option of sending a reference against CJP. Although said it in a way that he doesn’t think that reference is required anymore but it is clear that he mentioned about the reference to give a message to SC and CJP. They both need to know that Musharraf tried his evil deeds against the judiciary and honorable CJP but Allah helped them in their noble cause of justice.

Assault on the judiciary by Malik Riaz seems to be fully backed by establishment who don’t want an independent judiciary in the country due to the cases of missing person, lal masjid, NRO and Mehran gate.

It seems that there is also international backing on this issue by those powers who don’t want a change in the country and want Pakistan to stuck in the NRO setup and war on terror. All the NATO supply thing is a drama and we all know (except some mentally blind people) that drones were flying from Pakistani airbases given to CIA/US Army by Pakistani Armed Forces (Mercenaries).

These forces of evil need to know that they can plan evil but someone above is the best of planners and insaAllah he will not let the evil win.

“Remember how those who bent on denying the truth plotted against you to imprison you or kill you or expel you: they schemed but God also schemed. God is the best of schemers.” (Quran, Al-Anfal 8:30 )

Kleptocracy in focus–>Babar Sattar, TheNews

Source : http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-9-113436-Kleptocracy-in-focus

by Babar Sattar

The writer is a lawyer based in Islamabad.

The chief justice did the courageous thing by taking suo motu notice of the clandestine affair between Malik Riaz and his son Arsalan Iftikhar that had spread like wildfire through a crafty whispering campaign. And after putting the judicial wheels in motion to hold to account his son and Malik Riaz, and throwing his weight behind affixing the liability of the two in a transparent and impartial manner in an open court, he did the right thing by recusing himself from the case. Those who argue that the accusations rooted in gossip should have been shrugged off are wrong. The conduct in question might be that between two private individuals, but one of them being the CJ’s son, the insinuation was that illegal gratification was offered and accepted to influence the outcome of court cases pending before the Supreme Court.

From the disclosures made by journalists so far it is obvious that documents and accounts (and probably even videos?) were meticulously kept to drag the name of the CJ through dirt and consequently bring into disrepute the integrity and credibility of the apex court. The matter therefore didn’t relate to the CJ alone, but would bring under cloud the competence of the highest court of the land to dispense justice not adulterated by considerations of favour. And this in turn would bring into question the very notion of the existence and utility of rule of law in Pakistan by lending credence to the view that (i) law is not a shield for the weak but a weapon in the hands of the powerful to keep in subjugation the lesser mortals in society, and (ii) unimpeachable integrity is a defunct concept as every mortal is up for sale at the right price.

Such jaundiced view of the state and society is not a figment of cynical imagination but is rooted in the reality that the ordinary Joe is confronted with on an everyday basis. By all rational accounts we are living in a kleptocracy: a government of the extortionist, by the extortionist, for the extortionist. The state is in default of its contract with the citizen. You no longer have an entitlement to your rights even if you do your duty as a citizen. And consequently you have to pay for everything, even to protect your most basic rights to life, liberty and dignity. And if you are ready, willing and able to pay, it doesn’t matter if what you seek is right or wrong. State largesse flows through channels of personal patronage. Personal loyalty trumps merit. There is no distinction between honest and dirty money. And there are no principles remaining, only interests.

And consequently instinct demands that one accumulate as much wealth and influence as possible and use it to build social networks of protection to replace the role of the state. And it is people like Malik Riaz, who have mastered the ways of this ‘brave new world’ where money buys influence, influence yields more money, and with the use of money and influence to cajole the powerful and coerce the weak there are no limits to what you can accomplish. But not everyone in this state and society is comfortable with the rules of our evolving kleptocracy. And when someone who has reached the highest echelons of power within the state, like the CJ, refuses to be bought or otherwise inducted within the kleptocracy, the stakes go through the roof.

Within the kleptocracy that we are referring to, the kith and kin of the powerful do exceedingly well. Why should it be surprising that the mediocre son of our CJ grew a sense of entitlement to receive preferential treatment and climb the ropes without paying his dues? Does such lack of discretion and propriety reflect poorly on Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, the father? It probably does. But does it undermine his integrity or credibility as a judge and a public-office holder? Absolutely not. In exposing the dealings between himself and Arsalan Iftikhar, Malik Riaz has used the nuclear option. Why would anyone need to employ means of last resort in the event that quiet persuasion is working? According to media accounts, Malik Riaz leaked details of sponsoring the merry-making of Arsalan Iftikhar because his investment wasn’t paying off.

So what we have so far is this. By his own account, Malik Riaz paid Arsalan Iftikhar to influence the outcome of judicial proceedings pending before the Supreme Court. Was he forced to do so because the wily Arsalan was blackmailing poor Mr Malik? Improbable, and Mailk Riaz would need to adduce evidence to establish that he was at the receiving end of this clandestine relationship with the imprudent 34-year-old. As Arsalan Iftikhar was not holding court and adjudicating cases implicating Malik Riaz, he would in fact need to establish that the CJ was in fact blackmailing him while using his son as an agent. Without this, and in view of information disclosed by Malik Riaz himself, he could be charged for offering illegal gratification to influence a public servant.

This could make him liable under Section 165-A read with Sections 162 and 163 of the Pakistan Penal Code as well as Section 9 of the NAB Ordinance. If it were established that Arsalan Iftikhar accepted the gratification with a view to influence the discharge of functions by the office of the CJ or other public servants due to the exercise of his personal influence, he could also be liable under Sections 162 and 163 of the PPC. Now that details of this scandal are out in the open, it is essential for the apex court not to take a narrow view of this affair in the event that Malik Riaz backs off and doesn’t adduce any evidence before the court, but instead exercise its inquisitorial powers to collect and decipher facts to ensure that both Malik Riaz and Arsalan Iftikhar are held to account for their actions in accordance with the law.

In this debate, Malik Riaz must not be seen as a solitary individual. He might be a good friend, a loving father and a rich man who believes in charity. But he is also a phenomenon that highlights the growing predatory instincts of our society. This phenomenon has cultivated the myth of infallibility and immortality of the powerful within the society. It has defeated the conventional wisdom that if you are caught with hands in the cookie jar society holds you to account and respectable folk refuse to associate with such delinquents. It has established that irrespective of personal repute, money can buy the best professional assistance. It has proven that if cut a piece of the pie everyone is willing to play ball. This phenomenon has established an ethic of success that labels right and wrong as irrelevant for those who aim for upward professional and social mobility.

The CJ’s commendable action of dragging his son before an open court and laying his ethical failings in plain public view is a defining moment in the fight between continuity of the depraved status quo and the desire for change. As nothing succeeds like success, the strength of the entrenched kleptocracy is rooted not in its popularity but in its efficacy. Our ruling elites – across the political class, the khakis, the bureaucracy, the media and the lawyer fraternity etc – are mostly its beneficiaries.

The few who still have qualms about meddling in grime have turned apathetic having made their peace with the ‘ground reality’ they cannot change. In this environment, the action of the CJ to stand by law and principle, even as he subjects himself and his family to public scrutiny and possible embarrassment, has provided a unique opportunity to stand up and fight the kleptocracy. We must not fitter this opportunity away.

Email: sattar@post.harvard.ed

Arsalan to be punished in accordance with the law if proved guilty: Chief Justice–> Great to hear that in Pakistan

June 6, 2012 1 comment
Just went through some of the remarks during the case proceedings in Arsalan Iftikhar and Malik Riaz case, shared by Nadeem Malik and Umar Cheema on facebook.

Here are few of the remarks:

Arsalan to be punished in accordance with the law if proved guilty: Chief Justice
We’re the followers of Muhammd (PBUH) who said he won’t spare if his daughter Fatima (RA) found guilty: Justice Khilji.

We’ll not spare anybody who tried to ruin the institution of judiciary, be he’s my son: Chief Justice

If Arsalan found guilty, law will take its course: Chief Justice

Great to see that happening in Pakistan.

Yusuf Raza Gillani Convicted by Supreme Court in Comtempt Case

April 26, 2012 2 comments

In a historic and remarkable decision today, Supreme Court of Pakistan declared PM Gilani as guilty in Contempt of Court case against him for disobeying court orders in NRO case.

A seven-member bench, headed by Justice Nasirul Mulk announced the conviction violating article 63 (1) (g) of the Constitution and for ridiculing the court. Gilani is punished for the duration of the court sitting time for the case today. “For reasons to be recorded later, the prime minister is found guilty of contempt for wilfully flouting the direction of the Supreme Court,” said Justice Nasirul Mulk (according to Express Tribune).

Punishment to Gillani seems to be minor but it will be enough to disqualify him and it has also limited his chances of becoming a political martyr or jail hero. I would say with a bit reservation that its not a bad decision but a bit wise one.

Hopefully, things will improve in the country and Rule of Law based on equality and justice will find its way in the country.

 

 

 

Rs 8,500 bn corruption mars Gilani tenure: Transparency –>Ansar Abbasi, The News

February 5, 2012 Leave a comment

Transparency International Pakistan says Gilani tenure has given a loss of Rs 8,500 billions in corruption so far. Still nincompoos and corrupts in government expect people to pay taxes like “responsible” citizens. Yes, people like us who pay taxes despite corruption are responsible and they are responsible for beeing ignorant.

People should go for a collective boycott of taxes and take back the country from these evil ruling elite.

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Rs 8,500 bn corruption mars Gilani tenure: Transparency

Source : http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=12258&Cat=13

by Ansar Abbasi

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan has lost an unbelievably high amount, more than Rs8,500 billion (Rs8.5 trillion or US$94 billion), in corruption, tax evasion and bad governance during the last four years of Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani’s tenure, Transparency International Pakistan (TIP) claims.

The TIP advisor, Adil Gillani, told The News that the real impact of corruption in the country’s economy is far more than what is generally estimated or what is formally uncovered. He believes that Pakistan does not need even a single penny from the outside world if it effectively checks the menace of corruption and ensures good governance.

It is generally believed that the four years of the present regime under Gilani had been the worst in terms of corruption and bad governance in the country’s history. Past records of corruption were broken and Pakistan started rising in the ranks of the most corrupt nations of the world.

There has been no check on corruption as the anti-corruption institutions like the National Accountability Bureau and Federal Investigation Agency instead of checking corruption have been siding with the corrupt.

These institutions have been helping the corrupt to get off the hook by distorting and mutilating the evidence in favour of the influential accused.
Adil Gillani, the TIP representative, who too has been haunted by the government during these years for producing corruption reports, explained that the TIP pointed out corruption of Rs390 billion in 2008, Rs450 billion in 2009, Rs825 billion in 2010 and Rs1,100 billion in 2011 under the present regime. The total of these identified cases of corruption is Rs2,765 billion.
In addition to this, he explained the following:

The minister of finance of the present regime himself confirmed corruption in FBR of over Rs500 billon per year, which makes the total Rs2,000 billion; Auditor General of Pakistan pointed out Rs315 billion corruption in 2010; Public Accounts Committee recovered Rs115 billion in 30 months till 2011; circular debt is Rs190 million; KESC was given Rs55 billion illegal benefits per annum since 2008; state-owned enterprises like PSO, PIA, Pakistan Steel, Railways, SSGC, SNGC are eating away Rs150-300 billion per annum; tax to GDP ratio in 2008 was 11%, which in 2011 has reduced to 9.1% instead of being increased.

Gillani explained that Pakistan’s Gross Domestic Product is worth US$175 billion and in the light of this the drop of 1.9% in the tax GDP means annual loss of US$ 3.3 billion. This confirms that FBR is losing Rs300 million per annum, which is annual additional loss since 2008 and stands at Rs1,200 billon in four years
The TIP adviser added that India’s tax-GDP ratio is 18%, and at that rate, Pakistan’s tax evasion/corruption in FBR is 9% of $175 billion, which is US$15.5 billion per year, i.e. Rs1,400 billion per year.

It is worth mentioning here that it is not only the Transparency International but there have been different international bodies including the World Bank and world capitals, which have been showing their concern over rising trend of corruption in Pakistan under the Gilani’s regime. It was mounting corruption and extremely bad governance, which even dithered the outside world to offer cash to Pakistan during 2010 and 2011 floods, which devastated different parts of Pakistan and affected millions of people.
At home the corruption became a fashion in such a shameless manner that even the cabinet ministers started openly pointing fingers at each other and even at the highest levels including the prime minister. Some even approached the Supreme Court but despite all this, corruption remained the hallmark of the present regime, which instead of curbing it started defending it in the name of democracy.

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